Posts Tagged 'Fruits'

Fruits from a Fruit

Here’s another ridiculous scientific list. This one categorizes the different types of fruits. OMG strawberry dachshund costumeIt may come as a surprise to you that the tomato is a berry, or that those whirlibirds that fall off of maple trees are in fact fruits! In a botanical sense, a fruit is a ripened ovary containing seeds and a variety of surrounding tissues. How these tissues are arranged determines how the fruits are classified. There are two fundamental categories of fruits, fleshy and dry, which most people think of as fruits and nuts, respectively. I’ve laid out the details of how each category gets broken up. This is pretty much useless information, but there’s some pretty cool words in here. I heart Pepos. I also heart dachshunds wearing strawberry costumes. Brody, I hope you’re ready for a new outfit!

FLESHY FRUITS

Simple Fleshy Fruits (derived from only one pistil)

Drupes: Single seed enclosed by a hard endocarp (pit)

e.g. peaches, cherries, olives, almonds, coconuts

Berries: Derived from a compound ovary, often have multiple seeds

True Berries: thin skin and soft pericarp (tissue surrounding the seeds)

e.g. tomatoes, grapes, peppers, blueberries, bananas

Pepos: thick rind

e.g. pumpkins, cucumbers, watermelons

Hesperidium: leathery skin containing oils

e.g. oranges, lemons, limes

Pomes: Flesh derived from ovary’s receptacle

e.g. apples, pears

Aggregate Fruits (derived from single flower with many pistils)

e.g. raspberries, blackberries, strawberries

Multiple Fruits (derived from several flowers in a single inflorescence)

e.g. osage oranges, pineapples, figs

DRY FRUITS

Dry Fruits That Split at Maturity

Follicles: Split along one seam

e.g. larkspur, milkweed, peony

Legumes: Split along two seams

e.g. peas, beans, lentils, peanuts

Siliques: Split along two seams, but seeds are held along a central partition

e.g. broccoli, cabbage, radishes

Capsules: Split any other way

e.g. irises, orchids, poppies

Dry Fruits That Do Not Split at Maturity

Achenes: Single seed is attached to the pericarp at the base

e.g. sunflower seeds

Nuts: Same as achenes except thicker pericarp, cluster of bracts at base

e.g. acorns, hazelnuts, chestnuts

Grains: Pericarp and seed are inseparable

e.g. corn, wheat, rice, oats

Samaras: Specialized pericarp extends out as a wing to aid in dispersal

e.g. maple, ash, elm

Schizocarp: Twin fruits

e.g. parsley, carrot, anise, dill